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Summary of Proposal GEO1050

TitleInSAR monitoring of Landslides affecting Transportation and Energy Corridors in Canada
Investigator SINGHROY, Vernon - Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural resources Canada
Team Member
Scientist Charbonneau, Francois - Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources, Canada
Scientist Couture, Rejean - Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources, Canada
SummaryInSAR deformation monitoring as a routine hazard assessment method. It is strategic growth area for the use of TerraSAR X,RADARSAT 2 and the proposed RADARSAT Constellation. There is a need to develop convincing case studies at difficult high-risk sites that will be used to establish an InSAR monitoring baseline for continuous integrated monitoring along Canada’s strategic transportation and energy corridors and infrastructure. To date we have successfully demonstrated InSAR as a routine monitoring tool on some landslides with our provincial partners. During the next 3 years we plan to continue our application on known high risk and well instrumented sites that requires routine monitoring. The role ofTerra SAR X rapid revisit will assist to under stand the comlex and constant movement experienced at these landsluides.The areas selected for this investigation include small active landslides affecting critical infrastructure such as theMackenzie Valley pipeline route, the Alaska highway and coastal highways in Quebec and Newfoundland. We are proposing to aquire83scenes per year during the summer and fall seasons for both 2010 and 2011. A total of 166 scenes are required Five high -risk landslides are currently being investigated. - Landslides triggered by permafrost melt affecting the proposed Mackenzie Valley Pipeline -Deep seated landslides affecting the Alaska highway and pipeline - Three coastal Landslides triggered by coastal erosion at Gaspe, Quebec, Daniels Harbour , and Cornerbrook, Newfoundland
Final Report The following abstracts represent the results of this investigation. The final papers are in the specific proceedings: 1: Singhroy V., Charbonneau F., Froese C. & Couture R. (2012). Guidelines for InSAR monitoring of landslides in Canada. Landslides and Engineered Slopes: Protecting Society through improved understanding- Eberhardt et al. (eds). Taylor & Francis Group, London. pp1281-86. Abstract: Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques are increasingly being used for slope stability assessment and monitoring rates of movement. In this paper we provide a summary of published case studies in Canada that assisted in producing guidelines for InSAR monitoring of gradual landslide motion. With the exception of the Frank rock avalanche all the landslides are in vegetated areas and as such installed trihedral corner reflectors were used as permanent scatters. This is very typical of most Canadian landslides. Differential InSAR technique, using two or three scenes, provide a more general and simple snap shot of slope motion. PSInSARTM/ CTMTM and Squeeze SARTM processing techniques are more complex using more than twenty repeat pass scenes. They show the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the terrain movements and can assist in defining the parameters controlling the dynamics of low-velocity landslides. Keywords: InSAR, Radarsat 2, TerraSAR X, Landslides 2: .Singhroy, V., Charbonneau, F., Li, J., Couture, R., 2013 High Resolution InSAR monitoring of Coastal landslides. Landslide Science and Practice, Vol. 2. Ed C Margottini et al (eds.) Springer –Verlag Berlin. ISBN 978-3-642-31445-2, pp. 475-479. Abstract Radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques using images from several radar satellites are increasingly being used in slope stability assessment. During the past year there were at least twenty five media reports of landslides, some fatal, occurring in various areas in Canada. In this paper, we provide examples of using high resolution (3m) InSAR techniques from RADARSAT and TerraSAR X to monitor coastal landslides affecting transportation corridors. The high-resolution InSAR images are very effective in characterizing differential motion within these low velocity coastal landslides. The active wet spring periods are better monitored by the more frequent revisits from TerraSAR X. Keywords: RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR X, InSAR, landslides, coastal erosion 3: Singhroy, V. et al 2013 High resolution, rapid revisits InSAR monitoring of high risk landslides: ASAR meeting, CSA. ftp.asc-csa.gc.causersasar2013pub Abstract: During the past year there were at least twenty five media reports of landslides and seismic activities some fatal, occurring in various areas in Canada. These high risk geohazards sites requires high resolution monitoring both spatially and temporally for mitigation purposes, since they are near populated areas and energy, transportation and communication corridors. High resolution air photos, lidar and satellite images are quite common in areas where the landslides can be fatal [1]. (Guzzetti et al 2012) and others. Recently, radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques using images from several radar satellites are increasingly being used in slope stability assessment [2], [3], and [4]. This presentation provides examples of using high-resolution (1-3m) frequent revisits InSAR techniques from RADARSAT 2 and TerraSAR X to monitor several types of high-risk landslides affecting transportation and energy corridors and populated areas. We have analyses over 200 high resolution InSAR images over a three year period on three geologically different coastal landslides. Coastal landslides in Canada represent a specific threat on the coastlines of populated areas in southern British Columbia and the Atlantic provinces because high tsunami potential. Along the Canadian coastline, there are various configurations of topography, geomorphology, and geology conditions, which are conducive to mass failure [4]. In British Columbia, for example, rainfall intensity between 80 and 100 mm in 24 hours has resulted in a rapid increase in coastal landslides with increasing precipitation [5]. Along the Oregon coast, landslides are directly correlated with erosion by high winter waves and increased rainfall during the major winter storms [6]. In these coastal regions, landslides are triggered by seawater intrusion, coastal scouring, high intensity/frequency rainfall and storm events, land subsidence, human activity and rapid snowmelt, accompanied by favourable geological and geotechnical conditions. They occur without warning and with little time lag between failures and as such high resolution spatial and temporal images are required for monitoring. For instance, in Atlantic Canada, Hurricane Irene in August 2011 cost over $130 m in damage and affected more than 250000 people resulting in several coastal landslides The high-resolution InSAR images are effective in characterizing differential motion within these low velocity landslides. The low velocity landslides become high risk during the active wet spring periods. The wet soils are poor coherent targets and corner reflectors are limited, therefore the frequent revisits from TerraSAR X provides an effective means of InSAR monitoring the slope activities. The less frequent RADARSAT InSAR images provided the baseline monitoring over the three year period. The combined RADARSAT and frequent revisit Terra SAR images were used when the landslides are most active during the critical hurricane season, coastal storms and spring snow melt periods. Our high resolution InSAR results provides an effective monitoring of high risk landslides that are triggered by seasonal and coastal storm events and will be used to plan acquisition of rapid revisits for Cosmo SKYMed for the future RADARSAT Constellation. Keywords: High resolution, InSAR, rapid revisits, triggering mechanisms, transportation corridors. 4: Charbonneau et al 2012 TerraSAR-X InSAR monitoring of Landslides along Transportation and Energy Corridors 5th TerraSAR-X Science Team Meeting, German Aerospace Center (DLR) 10-14 June 2013 TerraSAR-X InSAR monitoring of Landslides along Transportation and Energy Corridors Charbonneau, Francois - Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada Singhroy, Vernon - Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada Couture, Rejean - Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada Charbonneau, Francois - Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada Abstract: Under the proposal GEO1050, TerraSAR-X data are used for InSAR monitoring of landslides along strategic transportation and energy corridors. Two unstable sites have been instrumented with corner reflectors for coherent point target monitoring by InSAR. The first study site involves InSAR monitoring of deformation related to a retrogressive thaw flow on permafrost along the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Corridor. The second site focuses on InSAR monitoring of a complex landslide affecting a coastal railway in Gaspe, Quebec. The retrogressive thaw flows are slope failures in fine-grained permafrost soils resulting from thawing of the ice-rich permafrost. The slide debris consists of thawed sediments and permafrost melted water. The deep thaw is caused by current warm summers combined the distruction of the insulating surface from forest fires. Our InSAR results shows that the flows are very complex with motion varying from 5-20 cm during the summer melt season. These rates of movement are important in developing appropriate remedial measures related to the proposed Mackenzie valley pipeline route. Our InSAR measurements of the landslide affecting the coastal railway has shown that the slide is characterized by a much more complex series of active blocs than previously estimated by traditional in situ instruments. TerraSAR-X Spotlight InSAR data acquired in ascending and descending orbit configurations have enable a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the displacement in 2D and in 3D (in combination with RADARSAT-2 data) while in situ instruments provide only one dimension component and some requiring manual survey. Coherent point target analyses have been assessed over corner reflectors located in high biomass zones (above the railway) while stacking technique has been applied over the cliff below the railway. Results show that the different zones are moving at different rate (from 5 to 40 mm/year). InSAR point targets analyses done with TerraSAR-X shows similar trends as with RADARSAT-2. The 11 days repeat pass and the high resolution capabilities of TerraSAR X were particularly useful to monitor the temporal variability of motion within different parts of both of these complex landslides. These valuable InSAR measurements are currently being integrated with other in-situ measurements to model the kinematics of these landslides. Keywords: TerraSAR X, InSAR, landslides, transportation corridors. Publications 1 Singhroy V., Charbonneau F., Froese C. & Couture R. (2012). Guidelines for InSAR monitoring of landslides in Canada. Paper submitted to the Joint 11th ISL & 2nd NASL, Banff (Canada), 4-8 June 2012, 6 pages. 2.Singhroy, V., Charbonneau, F., Li, J., Couture, R., 2013 High Resolution InSAR monitoring of Coastal landslides. Landslide Science and Practice, Vol. 2. Ed C Margottini et al (eds.) Springer –Verlag Berlin. ISBN 978-3-642-31445-2, pp. 475-479. Presentations: 3: Singhroy, V. et al 2013 High resolution, rapid revisits InSAR monitoring of high risk landslides ftp.asc-csa.gc.causersasar2013pub 4: Charbonneau et al 2012 TerraSAR-X InSAR monitoring of Landslides along Transportation and Energy Corridors 5th TerraSAR-X Science Team Meeting, German Aerospace Center (DLR) 10-14 June 2013 Further results Singhroy, V. at al. 2014: High resolution InSAR monitoring of the Canadian Oil Sands: To be presented at IGARSS 2014, Quebec City. Currently we have received 19 InSAR images and will report on the results at IGARSS.

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